Modern luxor which occupies part of the site of Ancient Thebes.Lies on the east bank of the Nile about 700 Kms south of Cairo and a population of 500,000.
Thebes was the Capital of Egypt during the Egyptian Empire which extended from Euphrates to upper Nubia for Almost thousands of years.
Champillion,The decipher of Hieroglyphics, Said ( In Thebes the imagination of the Egyptian Egyptians operated as Though it was the imagination of giants, No people, ancient or new has raised the art of architecture to such exalted stature)The Nile divides the City into two banks( The east bank and the west bank of the Nile).
Built along the Cornische of the Nile,Within the Modern tourist Quarter of the City.Luxor temple consititues its most important monuments and most sacred site.
It was buit by the king Amenhotep the third (1370 B.c) who builds the inner rooms and the Hypostyle hall and most elegant court and surrounded imitating flower.and completed by King Tutankhamon and The Mighty king Ramses the second.
It has served as a cult center to Pharaonic Egyptian,Pegan roman,Coptic Christians and Moslems alike..
The elegant Mosque of the moslim saint Abu el Haggag,The Patron of the Modern inhabitants of luxor,Occupies the eastern half of the Ramesside court of the pharaonic temple.
The Luxor museum of Ancient art was inaugurated in 1975in modern building,Specially designed for that Purpse by Dr Mahmud El Hakim..
It lies along the Nile cornische.
It`s will-Presented collection consist s of objects, Mainly statuary and steles of theban Provenance ,Serveral ancient sites of the Geeneral area surrounding luxor.
Most of the items in the collection of luxor museum date to New kingdom or slightly later.It was,Infact during this periode that the region saw it`s most spectacular development.The scope of collection,However ,covers the entire Pharaonic History as well as the Graeco-Roman and Coptic ears.
Luxor`s vibrant Market is among the most Picturesque in Egypt. The locals are dressed in the traditional garb and you can find men smoking Nargilas in the many cafes.
Here everything is on offer from an amazingly Colorfull array of spices,Fruits and vegetables .
Some of the best traditional foods of Egypt can be found in the restaurant here
The three temples of Ancient Egypt claimed supremacy over all other
The temple of Ptah at Memphis
The temple of Ra-Atum at Heliopolis
The temple of Amun Ra at Karnak
However only one has been spared the ravages of time to Amaze the visitors even today,4000 years after its initial stage of building.The temple of Karnak
The temples of the sun gods re and Atum was undisputed center of religious dogma which zealously maintained the intimate connection between state and religion.
The temple of Karnak is dedicated to Amun Ra-His wife goddess Mut and their son,the moon god ( khonsu)
Festival processions including the Portable bark of the triad carried by the Priests used this avenue during the beautifull feast of opet.To visit the temple of luxor.The Avenu of the Human headed sphinxes connected the sacred complex of Karnak with the temple of luxor,1.3 K m to the south,Many of these sphinxes still lie beneth the buildings of the modern City luxor
The Famous Hypostyle hall was build by King Seti` the second the Ramses the second during the new Kingdom.
TThe First monument to visit in the west bank of the Nile is the temple of Amenhotep the third,(18th dynasty) the temple itself has all completely disappeard,But the colossal twin statues of the King which once stood proudly in front of the Entrance to the temple.
The Memnon colossi are Quartz Monoliths,18 Meters high,The King is represented sitting on his throne,while his Mother Mutemuia and His wife tiy,Much smaller in the size,stand beside his leg,The back Plinth bears the Royal name of the king.
The ancient Greeks who visited the site were impressed by the size and the serenity of the Royal feature and Identified the giant with the Greek hero Mammon. The sun of Aurora.
The temple of Deir el Bahari occupies a scenic site of the western desert of luxor area across the river Nile from the great,Across the River from the great temple of Karnak,steep cliffs in the shape of a horseshoe form a natural background to two monumental buildings standing side by side,Each belonging to a different periode.
The Earlier one,to the left was built by king Mentuhotep(11th dynasty,as a combined tomb and the funerary monuments,More than 500 years later,the Femal Pharaoh Hatshepsut(18th Dynasty) whose tomb is situated in the valley of the kings.used the same site for the construction of her fenuerary temple.
Their fame among the ancient visitors has been increased when one the colossi began to emit deep sounds in the early morning as the heated air passed through the fissures which has been provoked by an earthquake ( the singing Memnon as silenced when the fissures were repaired under sptimus severus.
Ramses the second was the greatest builder among the Egyptian Pharaos,The Ramesseum,King`s funerary temple in the western thebes( Luxor) is the most Elegant expression of tis activities for almost a century it served not only as the cultplace of the Royal ka in conjunction with the god Amon. But Also as the admisterative center of the Entire region of Western thebes.This fuction as taken later by the temple of Madinet Habu.
Unfortuntly ,The Present condtion of Ramsemseum does not preserve its ancient Grandeur,Gold and Copper from doorways and Cults objects from treasury were robbed in antiquity.
The Greeks marveled at its ruined and named it the tample of( ozymandias) after the king`s Prenomem Usermaatre.It is famouse hous of life which served as liberary.Archive and scriptorium for the learned priests.
The inner surface of the Pylon bears one of the most pictorial versions of the famous battle of Qadish(Syria on Orontes river) fought by the King against the Hitties in year 5 of his reign.
Ramses the second has Produced four-Scale representations of the battle on the temple walls(luxor temple-Abu simbel temple,Ramsemseum and Abydous) making it the most advertized Military event in the ancient Egypt.
Ramses the third,The last warrior king of the 20th Dynasty( New kingdom) chose the site of Madniet Habu for his fenurary temple.
The temple of Ramses the Third Provides a well-Preserved example of the new kingdom Royal Funerary monuments.
Its particularly famous for its unusual gate builing which imitates the fortified gate of a Canaanite City.
Among the wall reliefs,one should mention in particular the famous scene of the war against the people of the sea.Including the only Monumental Ancient Egyptian example of the Naval battle .
Behind the southern wing of the Pylon there is a vivid scenes of the Royal wil boar hunt.
Deep in the western desert across the Nile from luxor,One finds the most famous concentration of the Royal tombs in Ancient Egypt.The valley of the kings,This site was two sacred to bear formal name.To the workmen who constructed the tombs and the few Privileged officials who were actively involved.
Disappointed by failure of the the Pyramids to Protect their Royal owners from robbery and desercration,The kings of the new kingdom decided to adopt a more secure mode of burial.Instead of the Prominent imposing structure of the Pyramid,They opted for deep,Rock-cut galleries and Halls instead of traditional Burial sites near Memphis.
The Popularity and accessibility of the traditional Royal Necropolis were sacrificed her in favor of the privacy of a remote wadi in the desert. Where nobody could venture unnoticed, nor survive long enough to inflict real damage to the tombs.
More than 25 kings of the 18th to 21st Dynasty as well as few privileged Members of the royal family and officials were buried in the valley of the kings.
The tomb Equipments is no longer there,But ,The long Corridor,The halls,the stairs,the columns and the Royal Sarcophagi are still in situ.
When all hope for the discovery of an robbed Royal tomb been lost,after all the experts has Pronounced, they valley of the kings exhausted,The discovery of limestone step in the bed of the wadi rekinkled the flame of expectation.
One step led to the another,and the sixteenth led to a sealed door with cartouches of the King Tutankhamon.stamped on it.
Three anthropoid coffins,one inside the other,Protects the Royal mummy from harm,the innermost was of solid gold,Further Protection was supplied by stone sarcophagus and four gilded shrine,decorated with a double frieze of the Urai.
Tomb robbers had,infact entered the tomb twice in Antiquity,They took small but precious items.such that could be carried away easily.Golden statuettes,Piece of Jewellery and Costly aromatic unguents.